Wrestling is a fight and competition sport with full-body use without further means. Since the beginning of the Olympic Games of the modern era, 1896, Wrestling is part of the Olympic program. Since the Olympic Games 2004 there also is a Olympic discipline for women (however, not in the style „Greco“). Since 1950 annual world cups are held, except in the years of Olympic Summer Games.
There are two different styles:
- Freestyle: The whole body, from head to feed, is an attack target. This applies to standing and ground combat.
- Greco-Roman (short Greco):Only the body above the belt is attack target. This applies to standing and ground combat.
The set of regulations
The rules are designed to bring the enemy from the stand to the bottom layer and with two shoulders on the mat. Techniques like throws, hurling and joint locks are used. Punches, kicks, blows and choking are prohibited. The fight administration and evaluating the grabbing combinations is the task of the judge or union of three judges. The winner is who has the most points at the end of the time or brought his/her competitors at first to both shoulders ( „shouldered“).
In 2005 new regulations were introduced by the World Association FILA: Internationally and in tournament fights there are three rounds of combat, team fights of five rounds of two minutes wrestling net time. The winner is, who won the first two or three rounds of combat. The win by fall ends the fight immediately.
A round winner is prematurely who achieved completely independent of the total score, two 3-point ratings or a 5-point rating. A difference of six points also ends the round. If neither of the two opponents finishes the round prematurely, the wrestler with the fewest cautions wins. In a tie, the highest individual ranking is important – if these are still equal, the final vote scored determines the winner.
The course of a single lap is different in the two styles. In Greco-Roman wrestling there is at first a minute and 30 seconds stand fighting, then 30 seconds ground fighting, whereby a wrestler is in upper position/an attacker. The one comes basically to upper position who would be like in the previous paragraph mentioned criteria round winner. For an absolute tie it is decided by the judges for the team competition, who was the leading or active fighter and who may be in upper position. If a wrestler does not achieve in the 30 seconds in which he is in upper position a vote, so his opponent gets, at the score of 0:0, a point and wins the round. In an individual competition in the first round, at an absolute tie, the wrestler in red jersey will be in upper position. If it is in the second round after the expiration of one minute and 30 seconds, according to all criteria mentioned and the score is 0:0, the wrestler in the blue jersey gets in upper position. Should there be a third round and there is again an absolute tie the fate will decide about the upper position (flipping a disc or a coin with a red and a blue side). If a wrestler scored a point before the ordered ground combat, he is automatically in upper position. The opponent does not get an extra vote if no action is taken by the top man. An attacker has to place his hands on the back of the opponent to bring him/her on the back or to take the upside down lifter.
In freestyle exists no ordered ground position. If nobody scored before expiration of time, the more active ringer is allowed to grab the leg of the opponent in team fight. He has after whistle 30 seconds time to score. The opponent has the task to avoid this and score himself/herself. The first score determines the winner of the round. In single competitions the flipping disk determines the grabbing wrestler.
Rule changes should make Wrestling to a more active fight and especially to a more exciting and therefore more appealing sport for the audience. The opponents are obligated to move faster than before to avoid the scoring of the opponent. But the rule changes are fiercely controversial.
Right now for men there are the following weight classes: 55 kg, 60 kg, 66 kg, 74 kg, 84 kg, 96 kg und 120 kg.
- The crotch grip is a grip with which one grabs the opponent between the legs and hoicks him. It is preferred applied to lift the opponent who is in a bank up and spin him to score points. The crotch grip can be very unpleasant for a wrestler.
- At the „packet grip“ in freestyle one grabs with the arm the opponents neck. With the other arm the leg of the rival is captured in the knee pit and hoicks it, so that the opponent can not free oneself from this grip. The grip is also called armpit throw.
- The arm stroke is a grip in standing fight in which the wrestler packs the arm of the opponent and rips it towards the mat. Hereby there are more variations: e.g. the style of pulling the arm over the shoulder and falling on the knee to force the opponent from the sand downwards. (Basic version)
The head-cross-buttock is similar to the arm stroke, however here one clutches with one arm the head and makes a movement, similar to the arm stroke, to bring the opponent mostly from the stand to the mat.